Literacy is empowerment. It is a basis for life—long learning It is the key to to individual good quality of life, and collective progress Everyone has aright to posses this “key” because education is a basic human right as enshrined in the Human rights Constitution of 19481 In the developing world like Nigeria, many more women than men are illiterates and this is more so in the rural areas. This paper attempts to discuss the process and gains of literacy; identify some cross— cutting constraints and challenges to the acquisition of literacy for most of the nearly female half of Nigeria‘s population in particular. These include‘ inadequate sensitisation and mobilisation of rural women: inadequate planning and inaccurate data; poor learning facilities and ineonducive environments: inadequate number of qualified teachers specifically for gender sensitive adult education programme; poor funding and poor management of human, material and financial resources. This paper thus presents the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme; Distance Learning (DL) Programme; State Level Initiatives in Free Education: and Collaboration with Funding from the International Community as some opportunities that will help achieve literacy for rural women in particular and the rural adult population in general. We suggest therefore that government should intensify its efforts to ensure the reduction of adult illiteracy with emphasis on female literacy. by capitalising on these opportunities.